Microsoft launched Windows Server 2012 as a server version of Windows 8. The operating system came up with new and improved features like it acquired the same metro-like start screen as win 8. Windows server 2012 having the code name Windows server 8 was a successor to Windows Server 2008 R2.
There are basically four versions available for Windows Server 2012
Windows Server 2012 Foundation
This edition was designed to act as an economy server with no virtualization rights.
Windows Server 2012 Essentials
The Essentials version was meant for small businesses having no virtualization rights.
Windows Server 2012 Standard
This version provides virtualization environment which makes two virtual instances run on Win server 2012 standard edition.
Windows Server 2012 Datacenter
Datacenter version was designed to provide highly virtualization environment which makes it possible to run unlimited virtual instances.
The new noticeable feature included in Windows Server 2012 is data deduplication which removes duplication within data while maintaining its integrity. The main motive behind introducing this feature was to increase the storage efficiency. Besides, data deduplication segments each file into small chunks and maintains single copy of duplicate chunks.
Hyper-V with new features
Windows Server 2012 was released with its own Hyper-V to create virtualization environment. The update version of Hyper-V includes many new features such as network virtualization, cloud backup, storage resource pools, and cross-premises connectivity.
ReFS- A new File System
Microsoft introduced new file system ReFS (Resilient File System) with Windows Server 2012. ReFS brought many new features like supports upto 16 Exabytes file size, maximum volume size is 1 Yottabyte, and many more. However, like NTFS, REFS does not support disk quotas, file compression, file level encryption etc.
New User Interface- Metro Style
Win Server 2012 came up with metro-based start screen just like Window 8. This new look of Windows Server attracted Windows users but on the other hand they find it burdensome to switch between start menu and desktop as it needs more clicks.
The most frequent issue faced by Windows Server 2012 users is network problem since it provides very low performance network and it takes a lot of time to write files over SMB (Server message block) network. It cannot be denied that more traffic across the network can cause data loss. If data have been lost due to connection, sudden power failure, or hard disk corruption then deleted or lost data can easily be recovered by using Windows Data Recovery software.